Monday 1st August 2016
As a neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid is widely used to control insects in agriculture and fleas on domestic animals.However, it is not known whether imidacloprid exposure negatively affects neurogenesis during embryonic development.In this study, using a chick embryo model, we investigated the effects of imidacloprid exposure on neurogenesis at the earliest stage and during late-stage embryo development. Exposing HH0 chick embryos to imidacloprid in EC culture caused neural tube defects (NTDs) and neuronal differentiation dysplasia as determined by NF/Tuj1 labeling. Furthermore, we
found that F-actin accumulation on the apical side of the neural tube was suppressed by exposure to imidacloprid, and the expression of BMP4 and Shh on the dorsal and ventral sides of the neural tubes, respectively, were also reduced, which in turn affects the dorsolateral hinge points during bending of the neural plate. In addition, exposure to imidacloprid reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, as determined by pHIS3 labeling and TUNEL staining, respectively, also contributing to the malformation. We obtained similar results in late-stage embryos exposed to imidacloprid. Finally, a
bioinformatics analysis was employed to determine which genes identified in this study were involved in NTDs. The experimental evidence and bioinformatics analysis suggested that imidacloprid exposure during chick embryo development could increase the risk of NTDs and neural dysplasia.
Sunday 28th February 2016
Monitoring of acaricide resistance is considered as one of the important facets of integrated tick management. In an attempt of development of resistance monitoring
indicators, in the present study two reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)
microplus maintained in the Entomology laboratory, Indian Veterinary Research Institute
(IVRI), Izatnagar, India, were studied to determine the possible contributing factors
involved in development of resistance to deltamethrin. Electrophoretic profiling of esteraseenzymes detected high activities of EST-1 in reference resistant tick colony designated as IVRI-IV whereas it was not detectable in reference susceptible IVRI-I line of R. (B.) microplus. Esterases were further characterized as carboxylesterase or acetylcholinesterase based on inhibitor study using PMSF, eserine sulphate, malathion, TPP and copper sulphate. It was concluded that an acetylcholinesterase, EST-1, possibly plays an important role for development of deltamethrin resistance in IVRI-IV colony of R. (B.) microplus.
Monday 15th February 2016
This study aims to investigate erythropoietin (EPO) regulate the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway on the cellular level, thus enhancing the antioxidant capacities of neurons to exert their antiaging effects. The long-range cultured neurons were set as the natural aging cell model, the cellular morphologies, antioxidant capacities and Nrf2 expression changes of naturally aged cells, and the cells that were administrated recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO) and Nrf2 pathway blockers for intervention were observed. EPO intervention could increase Nrf2 expression and Nrf2 nuclear translocation, promote the expression of CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD), enhance cellular antioxidant capacities, reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) retention and accumulation, thus significantly improving the morphology and neuronal networks of long-range cultured neurons; while LY294002 continuously blocked Nrf2 pathway, rhEPO lost its roles of promoting the proliferation of cytoplasmic Nrf2 protein levels and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. rhEPO could promote CuZn SOD expression, enhance the antioxidant capacities of long-range cultured neurons, increase cell survival by upregulating Nrf2 pathway.
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